Rohingya, not Officially avowed ethnic group in Myanmar, is now become a habitant in Bangladesh. They are forcibly displaced Myanmar nationals( FDMNs) from the Military Junta of Myanmar. The influx of Rohingya is not a new Phenomenon in Bangladesh. It began from 1973-74 and till continued in 2016 on a different numbers. But both in terms of quality and quantity, the exodus of 2017 was an entirely different. Bangladesh opened its border because of its humanitarian perspective. Bangladesh was accoladed by the International community and they gave enough economic facilitation to manage the large portion of Rohingya in Bangladesh. Though Bangladesh always to go about the repatriation process throughout its excellent diplomatic efforts, Bangladesh cannot completely fullfill the process because of the major powers interests in the Rakhine state, The Russia-Ukraine War effect, and less Importance the issue to International community. In addition, the Rohingya population has already created the unprecedented humanitarian crisis in Bangladesh southeast region which is most prominence for Bangladesh port diplomacy and its Blue Ocean Economy. The Political power of Military Junta has created the situation more arduous for Bangladesh to seek the prospect of Repatriation process. The paramount motive of this paper is to articulate “The Rohingya Crisis and the future Prospects of Repatriation.”
Present situations of the Rohingyas in Bangladesh
Bangladesh through International donors and humanitarian actors in continuously giving food, actors shelter, education, sanitation for Rohingya’s. Rohingya issue has now become a great security concern for Bangladesh. Rohingya often make fake passport by using Bangladeshi citizen name and go to the foreign countries throughout sea boats by the human traffickers. They are being involved in the drug business, killings and crime etc . They are now the most vulnerable people in Bangladesh including Politics, socio-economic and climate change. Sometimes, massive fire breaks out un the Rohingya’s camps. In accordance with Bangladesh Defence Ministry report, between January 2021 and December 2022, 222 fire incidents took place . They also get engaged conflict among them. Moreover, they become a great menace for local people in Cox’s Bazar. Their population growth rate is maximized alarmingly. They protested in their camps to return Myanmar in 2023 The World Food Programme cut monthly food distribution to $8 from $10.
Present conditions in Rakhine state
Current political situation in Rakhine state is not so good. Rohingya people are staying in Rakhine state continuously face intense restrictions on their Freedom of movement, marginalization, trafficking, torture and so on. Conflict between the Rohingya Muslim and Rakhine Buddhist communities still are going. The Military junta and Arakan Army have been on ceasefire since November. Now, Arakan is less stable to begin the repatriation process . After the military coup in 2021, Myanmar Security Forces have arrested thousands of Rohingya women, men and children because of unauthorized Travel and imposed restrictions on new movement on Rohingyas camps, villages. Consequently, water scarcity and food shortages become acute. In Accordance with UNHCR’s evaluation, Situation in Rakhine state is not favorable to sustainable return of Rohingya people.
Arakan army, most powerful ethnic armed organisations, prolonging their influence that have altered public opinion. Their endeavor’s helps to fragment within the States political elite. In sum, Rakhine state is more likely in another period of politically and militarily uprising . Rakhine state is currently the Centre of great power interests.
Repatriation prospect of the Rohingyas
In a words, Bangladesh Government always try to Rohingya repatriation by using its prudent diplomacy. Bangladesh wants to resolve the Rohingya repatriation throughout peaceful means of negotiations with the help of International community, and the major powers contribution ( Min, 2022). The Russia-Ukraine war has altered the geopolitical dimensions of International politics as well as Rohingya repatriation. In essence, Rohingya repatriation process is now less significance effort. Hence, depression, frustration, anxiety has become ardent in people.
Bangladesh, not a signatory state of any International Refugee convention, has no accountability in this matter. If Rohingya people does not repatriate, Bangladesh will face uncountable obstacles in the country. Indetermination and anarchy will expand in the shelter camps. Drug and arms smuggling, anti- social activities will enlarge that led Bangladesh more vulnerable socio-economic conditions. It will create a numerous concern for Bangladesh sovereignty. As the United Nations has already undermined the food aid, food shortages will help to create conflict and chaos in Rohingya camps. The ecosystem, biodiversity, Natural disaster will grasp to a greater extent. Local people are now lying in fear. Rohingya people children will face malnutrition and loose psychological attachment to their homeland, Myanmar.
The mediation of China about repatriation Process has extended the hesitation and concerns among the Rohingya people because China is considered for its own disputed policies to Muslim minority the Uyghur’s. Moreover, China’s mediation in the repatriation process is driven by the geopolitical and national interests aspirations ( Shin, 2023). Bangladesh has already taken “A Pilot Repatriation Initiative” as first attempt to repatriate Rohingyas.
As the struggle of Rohingya people has been marked by interruptions, fake Commitments, injustice, displacement, and violence the future of repatriation is full of precarious.
The challenges of Rohingya Repatriation
Bangladesh has already proven its shrewd diplomacy to repatriate Rohingya people. International communities and organizations, various countries in the world lauded Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina for her Humanity. There are a lot of challenges for Rohingya repatriation.
In my own perspective, as China is the close friend of both Bangladesh and Myanmar, Bangladesh should more attract China through unveiling its potentiality to repatriate Rohingya more. China should also increase its mediation role in the world. A Sustainable resolution must be ensured for Rohingya repatriation. Bangladesh must be keep pressuring China as well as International communities for their constant involvement so that fiendish aspirations can be perished in the bud. The International community must be emphasized the Welfare and the safety for the Rohingya population with the promise of their dignity, security, Justice and rights. Bangladesh intrinsic value has expanded substantially including the Geo-strategic importance of the Bay of Bengal, its natural resources both land and seabed, Tourism, unprecedented economic advancement. Bangladesh can be more attracted by using its intrinsic value and captivating culture to the world major powers to repatriate Rohingya’s. Bangladesh can propose the developed countries such as Canada, the U.S.A and the U.K to Take thousands of Rohingya people by representing their innovative capabilities, latent talents and morality. Bangladesh Government should be given more its extraordinary diplomacy to dispatch Ambassador in the various countries for appeasing them by presenting the plights and sorrowfulness, uncertainties of the future of Rohingya population. Bangladesh should also maximize its close affinity with ASEAN, D-8, BIMSTEC and put pressure on military Junta for returning their People. Bangladesh Government should extend its soft power, economic and public diplomacy to repatriate Rohingya. Bangladesh can be exchanged Rohingya people with other countries throughout Track || diplomacy. As Bangladesh has declared its Look Africa Policy, Bangladesh can be used Rohingyas for contracting Farming in African countries because of congenial environment. Moreover, Bangladesh can be used as a tool for Latin American countries to exchange Rohingya. Bangladesh is about to join BRICS in August, 2023, Bangladesh can be used BRICS countries to give economic sanctions on Myanmar.
Rohingya crisis has now become an international concern for many countries as well as Bangladesh. It has now become scapegoats for Bangladesh long-term security concerns. Bangladesh is continuously working with the repatriation process throughout its heart and minds. In summation, their future will remain in darkness.
Opinions expressed in this article are those of the author.