On May 28, 1998, Pakistan responded to India’s nuclear tests by conducting five simultaneous underground nuclear tests in the Ras Koh Hills of Balochistan province. Two days later, they carried out a sixth test in Kharan. These tests were seen as necessary for Pakistan’s national security and regional stability, and also served as a demonstration of its technological capabilities and political resolve. However, the tests faced international condemnation, resulting in sanctions and an increased risk of nuclear conflict between the two neighboring countries. Pakistan’s decision to conduct these tests was influenced by a combination of strategic, domestic, and international factors. Strategically, Pakistan believed it needed to match India’s nuclear capability to deter any aggression and maintain a balance of power in the region. Since India’s first nuclear test in 1974, Pakistan had been pursuing a covert nuclear weapons program. It was concerned about India’s growing conventional and missile capabilities, as well as its expanding diplomatic and economic influence, which could potentially threaten Pakistan’s interests, particularly regarding the disputed territory of Kashmir.
Domestically, Pakistan faced pressure from various quarters to demonstrate its nuclear capabilities. Public opinion overwhelmingly supported the tests, viewing them as a matter of national pride and identity. The military establishment, which held significant influence over Pakistan’s security policy, also advocated for the tests to enhance its prestige and credibility. Additionally, Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and the political leadership were under pressure to respond to India’s challenge, seeing the tests as an opportunity to boost their popularity and legitimacy, which had been waning due to economic difficulties and political scandals.
On the international front, Pakistan hoped that the tests would garner sympathy and support from the Muslim world and other developing countries. They also aimed to compel major powers to intervene in the Kashmir dispute and restrain India’s ambitions. Pakistan felt let down by the weak and inconsistent response of the international community to India’s tests, perceiving it as a double standard and a failure to uphold the global non-proliferation regime. Pakistan argued that it had no choice but to test after India had violated the norms of nuclear restraint and responsibility.
However, Pakistan’s tests had negative consequences for its security and economy. They resulted in international criticism and sanctions, including the suspension of economic and military assistance from the United States and Japan. The tests further heightened tensions and mistrust between India and Pakistan, leading to a limited war over Kargil in 1999. Concerns were also raised about the safety and security of Pakistan’s nuclear arsenal, as well as the risk of proliferation and terrorism. Moreover, the tests did not address the underlying issues driving the rivalry between India and Pakistan, such as Kashmir, terrorism, water sharing, and trade. Pakistan’s nuclear tests were a significant moment in its history and for the region. They marked its entry into the exclusive club of nuclear-armed states, symbolizing its determination to defend its sovereignty and interests against any threat. The tests reflected Pakistan’s aspirations to be recognized as a major regional power and a leader of the Muslim world. However, they also brought forth new challenges and responsibilities, requiring Pakistan to strike a balance between nuclear deterrence, economic development, and diplomatic engagement. The tests underscored the need for dialogue and cooperation between India and Pakistan to prevent a nuclear catastrophe and promote peace and stability in South Asia.