India, the world’s largest democracy, has seen significant democratic backsliding in recent years. Despite its reputation as a stable and thriving democracy, the country has been facing mounting challenges to its democratic institutions, including restrictions on freedom of expression, attacks on independent media, erosion of judicial independence, and the targeting of civil society groups.
Democratic backsliding, a term used to describe a gradual or sudden shift away from democratic norms and practices, can be caused by a range of factors, including political polarization, corruption, economic crises, and weak institutions. In the case of India, multiple factors have contributed to the country’s democratic backsliding.
One of the most significant factors is the rise of Hindu nationalism, a political ideology that seeks to promote the interests of Hindus over other religious groups. The ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), led by Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has been closely associated with this ideology and has pursued policies that have marginalized minority communities, particularly Muslims.
Since coming to power in 2014, the BJP government has taken a number of steps to suppress dissent and criticism of its policies. For example, it has used sedition laws to prosecute individuals who have criticized the government, including journalists, activists, and academics. It has also passed laws that restrict the activities of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society groups that are critical of the government.
The government has also been accused of curtailing freedom of expression and press freedom. In recent years, journalists critical of the government have faced threats, intimidation, and violence. The government has also used its power to regulate the media to control the narrative and suppress dissent. For example, in 2019, the government suspended the broadcasting license of a leading news channel for a day, allegedly for biased coverage.
The judiciary, which is supposed to act as a check on executive power, has also faced increasing pressure from the government. In recent years, the government has made several controversial appointments to the higher judiciary, raising concerns about the independence and impartiality of the courts. The government has also been accused of interfering in high-profile cases, such as the trial of activists accused of inciting violence in the Bhima Koregaon case.
Another factor contributing to democratic backsliding in India is the weakening of federalism. India has a federal system of government, where power is divided between the central government and the states. However, in recent years, the central government has been accused of encroaching on the powers of the states, particularly those ruled by opposition parties.
For example, in 2019, the government dissolved the state government of Jammu and Kashmir and imposed direct federal rule. The move was widely criticized as a violation of the state’s autonomy and a blow to federalism. The government has also used its power to withhold funds from states that are critical of its policies or ruled by opposition parties, undermining their ability to deliver public services.
The weakening of democratic institutions in India has also had a negative impact on human rights. In recent years, India has witnessed a rise in hate crimes and mob violence, particularly targeting minority communities. The government has been accused of failing to take action to prevent such violence and of condoning it through its rhetoric and policies.
For example, in 2019, a Muslim man was lynched by a mob in the state of Jharkhand, allegedly for carrying beef. The incident was widely condemned, but the government failed to take action against the perpetrators. Similarly, the government’s Citizenship Amendment Act, passed in 2019, has been widely criticized as discriminatory against Muslims and as an attack on the secular principles of the Indian Constitution.
In addition to these challenges, India is also facing a range of economic and social challenges, including high levels of inequality, poverty, and unemployment. These challenges have contributed to the country’s democratic backsliding, as they have fueled social and political unrest and provided fertile ground for populist and authoritarian leaders.
High levels of inequality have long been a feature of Indian society, with a small wealthy elite holding a disproportionate share of the country’s wealth and resources. While economic growth has lifted millions out of poverty in recent years, it has also widened the gap between the rich and poor, exacerbating social tensions and fueling populist movements.
The rise of populism in India, fueled in part by economic inequality and social unrest, has contributed to the country’s democratic backsliding. Populist leaders often seek to undermine democratic institutions and processes, portraying themselves as the voice of the people and attacking the legitimacy of the opposition and independent media.
Prime Minister Modi and the BJP have been accused of using populist tactics to undermine democratic norms and practices. For example, they have portrayed themselves as the voice of the majority Hindu community and have sought to marginalize minority groups, particularly Muslims. They have also attacked the legitimacy of opposition parties and independent media, accusing them of being anti-national and unpatriotic.
The erosion of democratic institutions in India has also had negative implications for the country’s international standing. India has long been seen as a leading democracy and a regional power, but its democratic backsliding has raised concerns among its international partners and allies.
For example, in 2020, the US government downgraded India’s status in its annual human rights report, citing concerns about the government’s restrictions on civil society and freedom of expression. The move was seen as a rebuke to the Indian government and a warning about the potential consequences of its democratic backsliding.
The international community has a role to play in addressing India’s democratic backsliding. International organizations, such as the United Nations and the European Union, can use their diplomatic leverage to put pressure on the Indian government to respect democratic norms and practices.
Civil society groups and activists can also play a vital role in promoting democratic values and holding the government accountable. In recent years, civil society groups in India have been at the forefront of efforts to resist the government’s attempts to undermine democratic institutions and processes.
India’s democratic backsliding is a cause for concern both domestically and internationally. The rise of Hindu nationalism, the weakening of federalism, the erosion of democratic institutions, and the challenges posed by economic inequality and social unrest have all contributed to this trend.
However, it is not too late for India to reverse course and restore its democratic institutions. This will require a concerted effort by all stakeholders, including civil society groups, political leaders, and the international community. Only by working together can India overcome its democratic challenges and fulfill its potential as a vibrant, thriving democracy.